Basic Research and Simulation Technology

Analysis & Simulation

Basic Research

Basic Research From a theoretical and experimental standpoints, we are solving the problem of glass melting technology based on basic research like bubble and stone analysis, dissolved gas analysis, redox measuring devices, equipment for observing high temperature glass melting (HTO), and high temperature glass physical property measurement mainly from our Czech partner company Glass Service.



Bubble Analysis Report example:

Bubble Analysis Report example

We send glass samples to Glass Service (GS) located in the Czech Republic by international express delivery.
The parcel normally arrives after approximately 4 days at the GS bubble analysis department. Right after processing it to the required sample shape, the bubble analysis is performed. The bubbles are broken in the Q-mass device and a quantitative analysis of the contained gas is conducted. Doing that it is possible to acquire analysis results like the table shown on the left. With the help of these results and long years of experience GS has in this field, the source of the bubble-occurrence inside the furnace can be estimated. Furthermore we suggest you the report how to improve the process not to produce the bubble. These reports will be reached to the customers, on average, ready within one week.


Redox Measuring Device: Rapidox
Redox Measuring Device: Rapidox
This device measures the oxygen concentration inside the molten glass at temperatures around 1000°C

By knowing the oxygen concentration in the molten glass (oxidation-reduction potential), we can optimize the refining and control the colour.
Furthermore, by measuring the oxygen concentration in recovered cullet beforehand, the glass melting process can be stabilized.
High temperature glass melting observation equipment
High temperature glass melting observation equipment

This is a device making it possible to observe the melting glass in a quartz crucible from side-view at temperatures of up to 1600°C.

These side-views easily show us the bubble development behaviour or refining phenomena under reduced or H2O atmosphere. This technique is an absolutely necessary means for bubble problem solution.



Measuring the thermal conductivity of high temperature molten glass

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For the glass furnace design and its computer simulation, it is extremely important to know the physical characteristics of high temperature molten glass (thermal conductivity, specific weight, viscosity, electrical conductivity, surface tension, etc.). Especially the high temperature characteristic of thermal conductivity is necessary.

GS uses the device as shown on the left.


Manufacturer information

Glass@ServiceΠ i`FRj
Glass Service (Czech) @
Company establishment: 1990 / Location of headquarter: Vsetin (Czech Republic)
Technology: Bubble/stone analysis, redox potential measurement (Rapidox), equipment for observing high temperature glass melting (HTO), melting furnace simulation (GFM), advanced control system (ESIII)

Computer simulation technology

This company is number 1 in the world for melting furnace computer simulations and their software GFM is being licensed to 40 companies all over the world. Every year they are entrusted with over 50 case studies. Since its establishment, GS has done over 500 calculations and is thus familiar with every type of furnace. Furthermore, employing the European companies' retired furnace engineers information, the validation of the calculation results and the real furnace operation is investigated.
Moreover, GS is developing the advanced control system ESIII based on the simulation technology, which can be applied to controlling the operation of the real furnace.

Simulation, example of a glass melting furnace for container glass.
 Computer simulation, example of a glass melting furnace for container glass.

The modelling study for optimizing the existed furnace is performed as follows: 

Step 1: Analysis of existing furnace. Firstly, input of the furnace properties and operation conditions into GFM and the calculation is done based on thermo-flow dynamics. The simulation results (outputs) are evaluated and then adjusted and tuned to real furnace results (glass temperature, glass flow, quality and so on). After these adjustments, we can implement the virtual furnace inside the computer.

Step 2: Case study to improving the existing furnace. Subsequently possible are, for instance as a case study, answers to questions like "To what extent the pull is elevated by putting a boosting electrode at the bottom?", "Which electrode arrangement is the most effective?" are calculated, theoretically pursuing the optimum solution inside the computer.

Currently, many glass manufacturers recognize the validity of these approaches.

Advanced control system using a prediction-model (ESIII)
Advanced control system using a prediction-model (ESIII)

Glass melting furnace control typically includes feedback-control as well, but due to the low thermal conductivity of the molten glass and its high viscosity, input (for example increasing the amount of combustion gas) and output (rising bottom temperature) is very slow.
That is why control is becoming so difficult.

The ESIII software analysis the operation data of the glass melting furnace from several weeks and calculates the input/output time-function.
By knowing the time-function between the input over the output, the feed-forward control becomes possible for the smooth furnace operation.

This control technology is currently deployed in over 60 furnaces world-wide contributing to saving energy and improving quality.


Glass melting technology product details